Scientific Articles and Peer-reviewed Journals on tDCS & taVNS

tACS​: Transcranial alternating current stimulation​

Parkinson’s disease​

Brown, P., New therapy uses electricity to cancel out Parkinson tremors [Internet]. 2013 [citado 25 Abr 2013].​

Krause, V., Wach, C., Südmeyer, M., Ferrea, S., Schnitzler, A. and Pollok, B., 2014. Cortico-muscular coupling and motor performance are modulated by 20 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) in Parkinson’s disease. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 7, p.928.​

Del Felice, A., Castiglia, L., Formaggio, E., Cattelan, M., Scarpa, B., Manganotti, P., Tenconi, E. and Masiero, S., 2019. Personalized transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) and physical therapy to treat motor and cognitive symptoms in Parkinson's disease: a randomized cross-over trial. NeuroImage: Clinical, 22, p.101768.​​

Teo, W.P., Hendy, A.M., Goodwill, A.M. and Loftus, A.M., 2017. Transcranial alternating current stimulation: a potential modulator for pathological oscillations in Parkinson’s disease?. Frontiers in Neurology, 8, p.185.

Psychiatric clinical trials

Wang, H.X., Wang, L., Zhang, W.R., Xue, Q., Peng, M., Sun, Z.C., Li, L.P., Wang, K., Yang, X.T., Jia, Y. and Zhou, Q.L., 2020. Effect of transcranial alternating current stimulation for the treatment of chronic insomnia: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics, 89(1), pp.38-47.​

Elyamany, O., Leicht, G., Herrmann, C.S. and Mulert, C., 2021. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS): from basic mechanisms towards first applications in psychiatry. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 271(1), pp.135-156.​

Mellin, J.M., Alagapan, S., Lustenberger, C., Lugo, C.E., Alexander, M.L., Gilmore, J.H., Jarskog, L.F. and Fröhlich, F., 2018. Randomized trial of transcranial alternating current stimulation for treatment of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. European Psychiatry, 51, pp.25-33.

Major depressive disorder (MDD)​

tDCS​: Transcranial direct ​current stimulation​


Hu, X.S., Fisher, C.A., Munz, S.M., Toback, R.L., Nascimento, T.D., Bellile, E.L., Rozek, L., Eisbruch, A., Worden, F.P., Danciu, T.E. and DaSilva, A.F., 2016. Feasibility of non-invasive brain modulation for management of pain related to chemoradiotherapy in patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, p.466.​

Ibrahim, N.M., Abdelhameed, K.M., Kamal, S.M.M., Khedr, E.M.H. and Kotb, H.I.M., 2018. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation of the motor cortex on visceral pain in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Pain Medicine, 19(3), pp.550-560.​

Gaynor, A.M., Pergolizzi, D., Alici, Y., Ryan, E., McNeal, K., Ahles, T.A. and Root, J.C., 2020. Impact of transcranial direct current stimulation on sustained attention in breast cancer survivors: Evidence for feasibility, tolerability, and initial efficacy. Brain stimulation, 13(4), pp.1108-1116.​

Sprugnoli, G., Monti, L., Lippa, L., Neri, F., Mencarelli, L., Ruffini, G., Salvador, R., Oliveri, G., Batani, B., Momi, D. and Cerase, A., 2019. Reduction of intratumoral brain perfusion by noninvasive transcranial electrical stimulation. Science advances, 5(8), p.eaau9309.

Long Covid Syndrome​

Gandhi, S., Srivastava, A.K., Ray, U. and Tripathi, P.P., 2020. Is the collapse of the respiratory center in the brain responsible for respiratory breakdown in COVID-19 patients?. ACS chemical neuroscience, 11(10), pp.1379-1381.​

Vestito, L., Mori, L., Trompetto, C., Bagnasco, D., Canevari, R.F., Ponzano, M., Subbrero, D., Cecchella, E., Barbara, C., Clavario, P. and Bandini, F., 2022. Impact of tDCS on persistent COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction: a double-blind sham-controlled study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry.​ ​

Carlos Tornero, Ernesto Pastor, María Del Mar Garzando, Jorge Orduña, Maria J Forner, Irene Bocigas, David L Cedeño, Ricardo Vallejo, Candace K McClure, Christopher J Czura, Eric J Liebler, Peter Staats. Front Neurol. 2022. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2022.820864.​

Gómez, L., Vidal, B., Cabrera, Y., Hernández, L. and Rondón, Y., 2021. Successful treatment of post-covid symptoms with transcranial direct current stimulation. The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders, 23(6), p.38522.​

Eilam-Stock, T., George, A., Lustberg, M., Wolintz, R., Krupp, L.B. and Charvet, L.E., 2021. Telehealth transcranial direct current stimulation for recovery from Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC). Brain Stimulation: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation, 14(6), pp.1520-1522.


Magis, D., D’Ostilio, K., Lisicki, M., Lee, C. and Schoenen, J., 2018. Anodal frontal tDCS for chronic cluster headache treatment: a proof-of-concept trial targeting the anterior cingulate cortex and searching for nociceptive correlates. The Journal of Headache and Pain, 19(1), pp.1-10.​

Mansour, A.G., Ahdab, R., Khazen, G., El-Khoury, C., Sabbouh, T.M., Salem, M., Yamak, W., Chalah, M.A., Ayache, S.S. and Riachi, N., 2020. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the occipital cortex in medication overuse headache: a pilot randomized controlled cross-over study. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(4), p.1075.​

Alhassani, G., Treleaven, J. and Schabrun, S.S., 2017. Combined transcranial and trans-spinal direct current stimulation in chronic headache: A feasibility and safety trial for a novel intervention. Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal, 37, pp.1-9.


Valle, A., Roizenblatt, S., Botte, S., Zaghi, S., Riberto, M., Tufik, S., Boggio, P.S. and Fregni, F., 2009. Efficacy of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the treatment of fibromyalgia: results of a randomized, sham-controlled longitudinal clinical trial. Journal of pain management, 2(3), p.353.​

Lloyd, D.M., Wittkopf, P.G., Arendsen, L.J. and Jones, A.K., 2020. Is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effective for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia? A systematic review and meta-analysis. The journal of pain, 21(11-12), pp.1085-1100.


Babakhani, B., Tabatabaei, N.H., Elisevich, K., Sadeghbeigi, N., Barzegar, M., Mobarakeh, N.M., Eyvazi, F., Khazaeipour, Z., Taheri, A. and Nazem-Zadeh, M.R., 2022. A Preliminary Study of the Efficacy of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Trigeminal Neuralgia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 16.​

Khodashenas, M., Towhidkhah, F. and Baghdadi, G., 2018. A conceptual model of trigeminal neuralgia network and tDCS pain reduction effect. Dev Anesthetics Pain Manag, 1(2), p.000506.​

Hagenacker, T., Bude, V., Naegel, S., Holle, D., Katsarava, Z., Diener, H.C. and Obermann, M., 2014. Patient-conducted anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the motor cortex alleviates pain in trigeminal neuralgia. The Journal of Headache and Pain, 15(1), pp.1-9.

Depression ​

Aparicio, L.V., Rosa, V., Razza, L.M., Sampaio‐Junior, B., Borrione, L., Valiengo, L., Lotufo, P.A., Benseñor, I.M., Fraguas, R., Moffa, A.H. and Gattaz, W.F., 2019. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for preventing major depressive disorder relapse: Results of a 6‐month follow‐up. Depression and anxiety, 36(3), pp.262-268.​

Ferrucci, R., Bortolomasi, M., Vergari, M., Tadini, L., Salvoro, B., Giacopuzzi, M., Barbieri, S. and Priori, A., 2009. Transcranial direct current stimulation in severe, drug-resistant major depression. Journal of affective disorders, 118(1-3), pp.215-219.​

Sauvaget, A., Lagalice, L., Schirr-Bonnans, S., Volteau, C., Péré, M., Dert, C., Rivalland, A., Tessier, F., Lepage, A., Tostivint, A. and Deschamps, T., 2020. Cost-utility analysis of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in non-treatment-resistant depression: the DISCO randomised controlled study protocol. BMJ open, 10(1), p.e033376.​

Bares, M., Brunovsky, M., Stopkova, P., Hejzlar, M. and Novak, T., 2019. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) versus venlafaxine ER in the treatment of depression: a randomized, double-blind, single-center study with open-label, follow-up. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 15, p.3003.

Post-op pain ​

Stamenkovic, D.M., Mladenovic, K., Rancic, N., Cvijanovic, V., Maric, N., Neskovic, V., Zeba, S., Karanikolas, M. and Ilic, T.V., 2020. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with patient-controlled intravenous morphine analgesia on analgesic use and post-thoracotomy pain. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, proof-of-concept clinical trial. Frontiers in pharmacology, 11, p.125.​

Ribeiro, H., Sesterhenn, R.B., Souza, A.D., Souza, A.C.D., Alves, M., Machado, J.C., Burger, N.B., Torres, I.L.D.S., Stefani, L.C., Fregni, F. and Caumo, W., 2017. Preoperative transcranial direct current stimulation: exploration of a novel strategy to enhance neuroplasticity before surgery to control postoperative pain. A randomized sham-controlled study. PLoS One, 12(11), p.e0187013.​

Jiang, N., Li, G., Wei, J., Wei, B., Zhu, F.F. and Hu, Y., 2018. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex on postoperative pain and spontaneous oscillatory electroencephalographic activity following lumbar spine surgery: A pilot study. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 36(5), pp.605-620.​

Hamed, R., Khedr, E.M., Haridy, N.A., Mohamed, K.O. and Elsawy, S., 2022. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in pain and opioid consumption after spine surgery. European Journal of Pain, 26(7), pp.1594-1604.

taVNS​: Trans-auricular ​Vagus Nerve Stimulation ​

Long Covid Syndrome​

Boezaart, A.P. and Botha, D.A., 2021. Treatment of stage 3 COVID-19 with transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation drastically reduces interleukin-6 blood levels: a report on two cases. Neuromodulation, 24(1), p.166. ​

Badran, B.W., Huffman, S.M., Dancy, M., Austelle, C.W., Bikson, M., Kautz, S.A. and George, M.S., 2022. A pilot randomized controlled trial of supervised, at-home, self-administered transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) to manage long COVID symptoms. Bioelectronic Medicine, 8(1), pp.1-10.

Post-op pain

Chen, H., Feng, Z., Min, L., Deng, W., Tan, M., Hong, J., Gong, Q., Zhang, D., Liu, H. and Hou, J., 2022. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Reduces Neuroinflammation Through Microglia Polarization Regulation to Improve Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury. Frontiers in neuroscience, 16.​

Darrow, M.J., Torres, M., Sosa, M.J., Danaphongse, T.T., Haider, Z., Rennaker, R.L., Kilgard, M.P. and Hays, S.A., 2020. Vagus nerve stimulation paired with rehabilitative training enhances motor recovery after bilateral spinal cord injury to cervical forelimb motor pools. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair, 34(3), pp.200-209.


Li, L., Wang, D., Pan, H., Huang, L., Sun, X., He, C. and Wei, Q., 2022. Non-invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Cerebral Stroke: Current Status and Future Perspectives. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 16.​

Baig, S.S., Falidas, K., Laud, P.J., Snowdon, N., Farooq, M.U., Ali, A., Majid, A. and Redgrave, J.N., 2019. Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation with upper limb repetitive task practice may improve sensory recovery in chronic stroke. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 28(12), p.104348.